In this episode, James dives into a profound conversation with Professor Tyrone Hayes, exploring the effects of atrazine, a common herbicide, on amphibians and potentially humans. The discussion covers a range of topics, from the scientific findings to the societal implications.

Questions and Answers

  1. James: How does the natural ability of some frogs to change their gender differ from the effects of atrazine? Prof. Hayes: There’s a misconception that frogs naturally change gender. Atrazine causes exposed individuals to produce estrogen inappropriately, leading to gender changes in frogs.

  2. James: Can you highlight what you found with atrazine and why people should be concerned? Prof. Hayes: Atrazine causes genetic male frogs to develop ovaries and leads to a decline in testosterone. It’s associated with various health issues in humans, including small penis, non-descended testicles, and cancer.

  3. James: Is it small amounts of atrazine bioaccumulated over time that cause these effects? Prof. Hayes: Atrazine doesn’t bioaccumulate but is constantly present in water, leading to continuous exposure.

  4. James: What evidence exists linking atrazine to hormonal changes, and what could these findings mean for society? Prof. Hayes: There are hundreds of studies showing atrazine’s effects on various species. In humans, it’s associated with many reproductive issues.

  5. James: Is this why some countries in Europe have banned atrazine? Prof. Hayes: The European Union banned atrazine based on the precautionary principle, avoiding anything that might cause harm.

  6. James: What kind of pushback have you received from the industry for your work with Atrazine? Prof. Hayes: The industry tried to discredit Prof. Hayes, linking him to scandals, rejecting papers, and even threatening physical and sexual violence.

  7. James: How do we balance needing to bring awareness to the use of herbicides like atrazine with dealing with sensitive issues? Prof. Hayes: The focus should be on protecting vulnerable populations and ensuring that everyone benefits from cleaner environments.


The episode sheds light on the alarming effects of atrazine and the importance of awareness and precaution. Professor Hayes’s insights provide a compelling argument for reevaluating our approach to chemicals in our environment.



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